Arm-in-cage test is a most common way to determine the efficacy of mosquito repellent formulations. Most often, mosquito bites cause mild itchiness, irritation, and soft bumps for a short period of time. With the availability of various compelling evidence, bites of mosquito can pose a risk of many severe diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, zika virus, or yellow fever.
Mosquitoes are identified as an important insect vector for the transmission of diseases in humans. Mosquito repellents serve as an effective preventive measure against vector borne diseases. There are a wide range of insect/ mosquito repellent products available in the market. However, the effectiveness of these repellents to keep mosquitoes away from skin entirely depends on their chemical compositions. Arm-in-cage method is used to check the efficacy of mosquito repellents against different species of mosquitoes.
Arm-in-Cage Test (Conventional)
Arm-in-Cage test method is intended to check the efficacy of mosquito repellent formulations (size 40 x 40 x 40 cm). Topical repellents (such as lotions, cremes, and spray formulations) and impregnated textiles are also eligible for this mosquito repellent test.
Arm-in-Cage Test Procedure (Conventional)
200 host-seeking female mosquitos are held in the test cage. Repellent is applied to the forearms of the volunteers and exposed to the mosquitos every 30 minutes. The test can be carried out for up to eight hours after application or until the insect repellent becomes ineffective.
Criteria for Performing Arm-in-Cage Test (Conventional)
The effectiveness of a repellent compound is often measured against a reference material and assessed using the following criteria:
- Estimation of complete protection time (CPT): The duration of time between repellent application and the first confirmed bite. Longer the CPT time greater is the effectiveness of repellents.
- The time duration is until two or more bites occur on the treated arm according to ECHA(European Chemicals Agency) Transitional Guidance.
Modified Arm-in-Cage Tests (Customized)
The modified arm-in-cage test is the modification of the conventional arm-in-cage test procedure according to the guidelines published by the American Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Similar to the conventional arm-in-cage method, a modified arm-in-cage test is also used to determine the efficacy of topical repellents (cremes, lotions, and spray formulations) and impregnated textiles.
However, the new modified arm-in-cage test provides few significant benefits over conventional arm-in-cage methods.
Key Advantages of Modified Arm-in-Cage Tests (Customized)
- This method reduces the chance of cage contamination and accumulation of test material during the exposure of treated forearms to mosquitos. The treated forearm is exposed to mosquito probing through a test window.
- With an air ventilation system, it prevents the accumulation of odors and other material. In this turn, mosquitos show good biting behavior throughout the day.
- Compared with conventional tests, the modified cage is small and only requires 30 mosquitoes rather than hundreds to conduct tests.
Modified Arm-in-Cage Test Procedure
30 host-seeking female mosquitos are held in the test cage. In case of repellents, they are applied to the forearms of the volunteers and exposed to the mosquitos every 30 minutes. For Textiles, the fabric is wrapped on the forearm of 4 volunteers (2 male and 2 female). The test can be carried out for up to eight hours after application or until the insect repellent becomes.
A comparison made between the modified arm-in-cage test with the traditional arm in cage test using a standard repellent revealed that the protection times acquired in the modified setup were better.
The purpose of insect repellent formulations is to provide the protection from insect-borne diseases and irritable insect bites. MIS’s entomology testing services are to evaluate the efficacy and resistance of insect repellent formulations and support high quality product development. We are committed to provide accurate results with full transparency on pricing and turnaround time.
For more information on Arm-in-Cage test, consult our experts.
Arm-in-Cage test is a way to evaluate the efficacy of topical mosquito repellents under laboratory conditions.
Arm-in-Cage test is applicable for topical mosquito repellents (cream, lotions, and spray formulations) and impregnated textiles.
This mosquito repellent Arm-in-Cage test takes 3-4 weeks to complete.
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