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ISO 18184 Test

Textiles – Determination of Antiviral Activity of Textile Products 

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 This International Standard (ISO 18184) specifies testing method for the determination of the antiviral activity of the textile products against viruses. 

In the last two decades, there were multiple viruses breakout (SARS-CoV-1, MERS, SARS-CoV-2) causing large-scale damage to human lives. During this time, the general awareness for products protecting against such breakout increased multi-fold, and because of this, many antiviral products were launched in the marketplace. The antiviral products for textiles were also launched and with that, there was a need for a unified test method to evaluate the antiviral efficacy of different products on textile products. ISO 18184 was first introduced in 2014 and later revised in 2019, is a test method to evaluate the antiviral activity of textile products.

Products that can be tested with ISO 18184

The ISO 18184 can be used to evaluate the antiviral activity of different textile products such as 

  • woven, non-woven & knitted fabrics, 
  • yarns,
  • active wear,
  • socks
  • daily wear,
  • health care products such as scrubs, masks, & surgical clothes,
  • and other home textiles.

ISO 18184 is used for textile products that are hydrophilic in nature. For hydrophobic textiles, ISO 21702 shall be used to evaluate antiviral activity.

Sample Preparation 

Control Sample – 9 sterilized control (untreated) specimens with a mass of 0.4g ± 0.05g are required for ISO 18184 testing.

  • 3 control specimens are used to determine the infectious titre of the virus immediately after inoculation.
  • 3 control specimens are used to determine the infectious titre of the remaining virus after inoculation for a “contact time” (Standard “contact time” is 2 hours, but can go up to 24 hours).
  • 3 control specimens are used for cytotoxicity analysis.

Test samples – 6 sterilized test (treated) samples with a mass of 0.4g ± 0.05g are required for ISO 18184 testing. 

  •  3 treated specimens to determine the infectious titre of the remaining virus after inoculation is in contact with the treated specimen same as the control specimen.
  • 3 treated specimens are used for cytotoxicity analysis.
ISO 18184

 

ISO 18184 Test Procedure

  • Control and treated samples are placed in separate sterile plates.
  • The 200 uL of the virus is inoculated on both the control and the treated samples.
  • Immediately after the inoculation of the virus, 20 ml of SCDLP ( used as a neutralizing solution) is added to 3 control samples.
  • After a specific contact period, 20 ml of  SCDLP broth is added to 3 treated and 3 untreated samples to recover the remaining virus. 
  • The wash-out solution is serially diluted up to 10 dilutions, and the infectious titre of the recovered virus is determined either by Plaque assay or by TCID50 assay. Other assays can also be used based on the virus strain.

Antiviral Activity and Performance Standard

The antiviral activity is determined by the following equation.

Mv = Log10 (Va) – Log10 (Vc)

Where,

Mv is the antiviral activity value

Log10 (Va) is the logarithm average of 3 infectivity titre value immediately after inoculation of the control specimen

Log10 (Vc) is the logarithm average of 3 infectivity titre value after specific contact time with the test specimen.

As per the ISO 18184, If the log value is between 2 and 3, the antiviral performance of the textile product is considered good. If the log value is greater than or equal to 3, then the antiviral performance of textile product is considered excellent.

Antiviral activity value (Mv)

Efficacy Rating

2 ≤ Mv < 3

Good Effect Level

Mv ≥ 3

Excellent Effect Level

Table 1: Antiviral performance standard

The ISO 18184 is a very robust test method. If followed properly, the results are accurate and repeatable in both inter laboratory testing and intra laboratory testing. In the ISO 18184 test protocol, the steps are given for Influenza A (H3N2, and H1N1), and Feline calcivirus, but the protocol can be used for other viruses also after appropriate validations.

At Microbe Investigations, we evaluate the efficacy of a wide range of antimicrobial textile materials such as woven, non-woven & knitted fabrics and textile clothes used in health care settings.

We measure the antiviral activity on textile materials using standard methods like JIS L 1922 and ISO 18184. While, ISO 20743, JIS L 1902, and AATCC 147 are standard protocols used for assessing the antibacterial activity of textile materials.

We also offer a comprehensive array of testing services to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of plastics, coatings, and surface disinfectants.

To request a quote or for more information on ISO 18184 testing, get a free consultation from our experts.

FAQs

The ISO 18184 can be used to evaluate the antiviral activity of different textile products such as yarn, woven, non-woven, knitted, etc. used in different areas such as healthcare products (scrubs, masks), active-wear, socks, home textiles, daily wear, etc. 

The turnaround time for ISO 18184 test is 4 weeks. We also offer “Fast Track” program, where the turnaround time is 2-3 weeks depending on the virus strain.

At Microbe Investigations, we understand the need for accuracy and speed. We test for the ISO 18184 using the following viruses: SARS CoV-2 (Omicron, Delta, Wuhan variant), Betacoronavirus 1 (OC43) (ATCC VR-1558), Human coronavirus 229E (ATCC VR-740), Influenza A (H1N1) (ATCC VR-1469), Influenza A (H3N2) (ATCC VR-1679), Human Poliovirus type 1 (LSc-2ab), Human Adenovirus type 5 (ATCC VR-5), and Murine Norovirus (S99).

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