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ISO 18184 Test

Textiles – Determination of Antiviral Activity of Textile Products 

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 This International Standard (ISO 18184) specifies testing method for the determination of the antiviral activity of the textile products against viruses. 

In the last two decades, there were multiple viruses breakout (SARS-CoV-1, MERS, SARS-CoV-2) causing large-scale damage to human lives. During this time, the general awareness for products protecting against such breakout increased multi-fold, and because of this, many antiviral products were launched in the marketplace. The antiviral products for textiles were also launched and with that, there was a need for a unified test method to evaluate the antiviral efficacy of different products on textile products. ISO 18184 was first introduced in 2014 and later revised in 2019, is a test method to evaluate the antiviral activity of textile products.

Products that can be tested with ISO 18184

The ISO 18184 can be used to evaluate the antiviral activity of different textile products such as yarn, woven, non-woven, knitted, etc. used in different areas such as healthcare products (scrubs, masks), active-wear, socks, home textiles, daily wear, etc. The ISO 18184 is used for textile products that are hydrophilic in nature. For hydrophobic textiles, ISO 21702 shall be used to evaluate antiviral activity.

ISO 18184 Test Method

Control Specimen: 9 sterilized (either steam-sterilized in Autoclave or dry sterilized in a hot oven) control specimens with a mass of 0.4g ± 0.05g are required for ISO 18184 testing. 3 control specimens are used for cytotoxicity analysis, 3 control specimens to determine the infectious titre of the remaining virus immediately after inoculation, and 3 control specimens to determine the infectious titre of the remaining virus after inoculation is in contact with the control specimen for a specific “contact time” (Standard “contact time” is 2-hour, but can go up to 24-hours).

Treated Specimen: 6 sterilized (either steam-sterilized in Autoclave or dry sterilized in a hot oven) treated specimens with a mass of 0.4g ± 0.05g is required for ISO 18184 testing. 3 treated specimens are used for cytotoxicity analysis, and 3 treated specimens to determine the infectious titre of the remaining virus after inoculation is in contact with the treated specimen same as the control specimen.

Infectious titre of recovered viruses: The 200 uL of virus is inoculated on both the control and the treated specimen. The virus from the control specimen is recovered immediately and after the specific contact time using a wash-out solution. Similarly, the virus from the treated specimen is recovered after contact time. The wash-out solution is serially diluted up to 10 dilutions, and the infectious titre of the recovered virus is determined either by Plaque assay or by TCID50 assay. Other assays can also be used based on the virus strain.

iso 18184 test method

Antiviral Activity and Performance Standard:

The antiviral activity is determined by the following equation.

Mv = Log10 (Va) – Log10 (Vc)

Where,

Mv is the antiviral activity value

Log10 (Va) is the logarithm average of 3 infectivity titre value immediately after inoculation of the control specimen

Log10 (Vc) is the logarithm average of 3 infectivity titre value after specific contact time with the test specimen.

As per the ISO 18184, If the log value is between 2 and 3, the antiviral performance of the textile product is considered good. If the log value is greater than or equal to 3, then the antiviral performance of textile product is considered excellent.

Antiviral activity value (Mv)

Efficacy Rating

2 ≤ Mv < 3

Good Effect Level

Mv ≥ 3

Excellent Effect Level

Table 1: Antiviral performance standard

The ISO 18184 is a very robust test method. If followed properly, the results are accurate and repeatable in both inter laboratory testing and intra laboratory testing. In the ISO 18184 test protocol, the steps are given for Influenza A (H3N2, and H1N1), and Feline calcivirus, but the protocol can be used for other viruses also after appropriate validations.

FAQs

The ISO 18184 can be used to evaluate the antiviral activity of different textile products such as yarn, woven, non-woven, knitted, etc. used in different areas such as healthcare products (scrubs, masks), active-wear, socks, home textiles, daily wear, etc. 

The turnaround time for ISO 18184 test is 4 weeks. We also offer “Fast Track” program, where the turnaround time is 2-3 weeks depending on the virus strain.

At Microbe Investigations, we understand the need for accuracy and speed. We test for the ISO 18184 using the following viruses: SARS CoV-2 (Omicron, Delta, Wuhan variant), Betacoronavirus 1 (OC43) (ATCC VR-1558), Human coronavirus 229E (ATCC VR-740), Influenza A (H1N1) (ATCC VR-1469), Influenza A (H3N2) (ATCC VR-1679), Human Poliovirus type 1 (LSc-2ab), Human Adenovirus type 5 (ATCC VR-5), and Murine Norovirus (S99).

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